Radiology Surgery:

 The branch of medical field which analyses and helps in identifying diseases in the body with the help of medical imaging. Interventional radiologists are key people in this speciality. This session covers all the important applications in the field of Radiology surgery. 



Advances in Plastic Surgery

Most of the people look after reconstructive surgeries and plastic surgeries to be a whopping change in improving their lives. They strongly believe it takes them far beyond their personal insecurities. Botox, Derma fillers, Tumescent liposuction, IPL, IPL- photo facials these are the advancements in over the years. These techniques help people relieving from skin problems, enlarged pores, and enlarged blood vessels. Though there are additional and cheap methods, the intensity of these techniques remains unbeatable, due to their reliability and permanence.

Organ Transplantation

Organ transplantation was one of the breathtaking moment in the history of mankind. Generally, these include Autografts (relocation of tissue within the same person). Allografts (Implantation of tissues, cells of the identical species which are not genetically same). Syngeneic (transplantation which is immunologically and genetically capable within the species). Xenotransplantation (Between two diverse species). xenografts offer a potential treatment but raise many issues. The need for donors is much higher as the clock is ticking for acceptors.

Artificial organs

They do the duty on behalf of natural organs, but not as smooth as natural ones. Replacing the natural ones whose function is not up to the mark or considerably not enough for the patient to survive. Recent advances mainly focus on the vision, memory and information centers. These help the patients who are in need of awaiting transplantation. Provide life’s support and ability to self-care. Mainly includes kidneys, heart, limbs, liver, etc.

Acute Surgery Care

Acute care amenities are delivered by different professionals from their specialties. These services need a stay in the ambulatory surgery center, emergency department, urgent care center, along with the diagnostic services or to reexamine outpatient care in the community. Hospital-based critical inpatient care gets discharged once they are healthy. Acute care focuses on severe care, emergency department, neonatal intensive care, and many general areas where the patient could become severely unwell need care and relocated to a higher unit for care.

Anesthesia, Anesthetics, and Sedation

Anesthesia is often used by the medical practitioners in prior to surgery, to keep the patient in a state of calm, loss of sensation temporarily which is needed for the surgery on a patient to go on peacefully. These include General anesthesia (complete loss of sensation acts on CNS) Sedatives (acts on CNS which don’t cause loss of sensation) local anesthesia (targeted on the specific body part where it will be no pain).

Skin Care and Aesthetic Services

Aesthetic medicine is widely practiced in skin care. It helps with improvising and promotes beauty. The conditions like treating scars, nails, moles, skin pigmentation, aging wrinkles, visibility of veins can be treated easily. Well, it also concerns with the excess fat, breast augmentation, reconstruction in some areas of the body. This can be achieved by surgical and non-surgical methods. Cosmetic surgery is a major drive through. Recent advances and statistics show a promising result in future years.

Pre-Operative Care and Anesthesiology

Before the patient undergoing any surgery, he has to be mentally prepared which makes his stress levels and anxiety to become normal. Moreover, the patient’s history regarding disease and other complications is taken into consideration. Screening tests, X-rays, EEG, ECG, Chest x-ray are performed for further issues. Addressing the surgical spot cleaning it with chlorhexidine are common steps involved prior to surgery. Anesthesia is often used by the medical practitioners in prior to surgery, to keep the patient in a state of calm, loss of sensation temporarily which is needed for the surgery on a patient to go on peacefully. Doses are measured with respect to patient vital functions and any instant changes taking place and doses needed to be administered by the physician who has a piece of good knowledge on it.

Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery

Change in life style and other invisible reasons are triggering for the accumulation and deposition of fat around the primary organs and over the body. Persons whose BMI is over the limit have an increased risks of diabetes, heart problems, certain type of cancers. Bariatric surgery helps in losing the weight and outweighing the risk complications, which includes Laparoscopic Gastric Band, Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass & Sleeve Gastrectomy.

Cardiac surgery

Cardiac surgery categorized as advanced and most prominent surgery. Many of the heart problems including Arrhythmia, Coronary artery disease, dilated cardiomyopathy, Myocardial infarction, Heart failure, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Mitral regurgitation & Transplantations can be performed by cardiac surgeon, the underlying cause of the heart diseases is accumulation of fatty deposits in the arteries.

Colorectal Surgery

Surgery which deals about the disorders associated in the anus, rectal, colon. Some of the disorders include protrusion of walls of rectum, imperforate anus, fistulas. Some of the cancers associated in these areas can be cured which causes life-threatening risks. Risk factors for the cause of colorectal cancers include obesity, physical inactivity, and modern lifestyle changes.

Current Problems in Surgery

Problems in pre & post-surgery is showing impact on patients regardless of physicians operated. There should be an interaction between physician and patients about the consequences and patient need to be prepared for it. Lack of proper knowledge about identifying issue concerned with the patient safety & medical errors are becoming a cause of number of deaths rather than the diseases. 

Dermatologic & Cosmetic Surgery

Cosmetic surgery is a deliberative chosen surgery that is performed on normal parts of the body the only intention behind this is promoting beauty, appearance, and unwanted aging signs. Most common surgeries being breast augmentation, liposuction, breast reduction, eyelid surgery, abdominoplasty, rhinoplasty or facelift like many are surgical and some of the non-surgical include Botox, laser hair removal. Many of these come with side effects like nerve-damaging, hematoma, and in some cases organ damages.

Emergency surgery

Emergency Surgery is crucial for acute conditions. These emergencies include trauma, diseases, acute life threats which needed to be addressed as the next second the patient gets admitted. The skills required in emergency medicine include all key branches of medicine and needed to be performed within no time.


Otolaryngologists led a path by the use of microsurgery, which made physicians from different branches all over the world came up with their approaches and succeeded. Modern problems require modern solutions with an aim to perform surgery accurately the physician needs this microsurgical equipment. Future innovations and developments in the medical field with the use of modern technology is always appreciated.    

Endocrine surgery

As the endocrine glands are formed of a network of glands, secrete hormones and control different body functions, metabolism, growth. The network is long so the surgery focuses on the Pituitary Gland, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pineal Gland, Pancreas, Hypothalamus, Ovaries, Testes, Thyroid. Some of the glands are needed to be removed depending upon the emergency conditions & disease linked with it.

Craniofacial Surgery & Plastic Surgery

This surgery deals with the inbuilt and acquired deformities present in the neck, head, jaws, face, and related structures. This is totally different from cosmetics most of the anatomy issues are treated includes uplifting of the jaw bone, cheekbones, providing proper symmetry and ideal look to the skull & soft tissues. Some of the craniofacial surgeries also deal with Apert’s and Crouzon syndrome, inherited ear anomalies. Plastic Surgery deals with proper reconstruction, reconditioning and providing an ideal look to the face which includes microsurgery, hand surgery, & treatment of burns.

Gastroenterological Surgery

Surgeons in these field focus from mouth to excretory parts and along with alimentary canal.  These were divided into two parts upper and lower GI. Upper includes the Pancreaticoduodenectomy, Esophagectomy, Liver resection some of the surgeons exclusively perform these surgeries. Lower GI includes the surgery of small& large intestine and some of the cancers associated with the colon, rectum, and disorders arise in them.

Gender Confirmation Surgery

Certain standards and laws were reinforced for sex reassignment surgery. Before undergoing surgery patient is evaluated and analyzes the desire in having this surgery. Facial feminization surgery, Augmentation mammoplasty, metoidioplasty, Hysterectomy, scrotoplasty, etc. Patient needs to follow a lifelong course for hormone replacement therapy.

General Surgery and its Specialties

General surgeons are the first persons to operate in case of emergencies in most of the cases. Trauma, surgical critical care, endocrine, transplant, cardiothoracic, surgical oncology, pediatric, colorectal, endocrine, laparoscopy surgeries are the subspecialties in the general surgery. Many of the general surgeons are expertized in most of the fields.

Hand Surgery

Hand surgery generally involves the treatment of hand or upper extremity. Many of the complex situations includes rheumatoid deformities, congenital defects can be treated. It also includes rejoining of amputated limbs, microsurgery also helps in performing operations include rejoining of bones, soft tissues and enhancing the function of the paralyzed upper extremity.

Laparoscopic and Endoscopic Surgery

This is the surgery with minimum to moderate pain and due to smaller incisions, it outweighs the open surgery process in some areas. The laparoscopic surgery includes abdominal and pelvic cavities, whereas keyhole surgery implies to the chest and thoracic areas. Whereas endoscopic surgery too known for its minimally invasive surgery, which emphasizes the diagnosis and treatments can be performed with reduced body cavity invasion. endoscopy is more widespread and not particular to an organ/body location.

Neuro Surgery

Neurosurgery deals with disease, trauma, disorders, of the CNS in the body. The neurosurgeon is trained extensively to understand the risks arises in treating the complex parts of the body. Most of the complications range from Alzheimer’s to trigeminal neuralgia every disorder will be covered in neurosurgery. Due to the advancements in modern technology use of microsurgery, computer-assisted surgery, stereotactic navigation and many more are widely used.

Robotic surgery

Robotic surgery/ Robotic-assisted surgery is trying to overcome the limitations of normal surgeries where the surgeon doesn’t risk to go. Arthrobot was the first surgical robot ever used in medical history. It helps in the open surgery where the physicians have the utmost control over the patient to focus. Robotic surgeries are criticized for its failures in some branches of medicine where moderate situations got worse due to nerve damage, visceral damage, and permanent injury. It is not affordable.

Thoracic Surgery

Thoracic surgery implies to operations in the chest includes heart, esophagus & lungs. Mainly specialized thoracic surgeons treat lungs and esophageal problems, while cardiac surgeons opt for the heart. There are certain procedures like pleurectomy which involves the removal of the inner lining of the chest cavity, Wedge resection involves the removal of tissues associated with cancer, pneumonectomy involves the removal of lung and lymph nodes, etc. Robotic thoracic surgery, Video-assisted surgery is the minimally invasive procedures used in the removal of a tumor.

Burn Surgery

Burn surgery is of two types acute and reconstructive burns. Acute refers to the burn which occurs immediately which is needed to treated by trauma surgeons. Some critical situations even require plastic surgery. Reconstructive surgery deals with the burns with the goal of improving the damaged functions and cosmetic appearance of burn scars. Surgery is chosen depending upon the severity of burns some require hospitalization and some can be treated with outpatient options.

Trauma surgery

Trauma surgery is the much-demanded specialization of surgery which deals with the injuries which are life-threatening caused by some impact forces. The patient needs to be treated as fast as possible. With the increase in the severity of the injury right decisions are necessary for comparing the risk vs benefit ratio. This surgery requires a wide range of parameters including age, prehistory or present conditions, & difficulties in breathing, blood circulation to an organ everything is considered. the ultimate aim of the surgeon is to save the patient. In needed situations, a large number of surgeons need to address the surgery like orthopedic, cardiothoracic, neuro & plastic surgeons.

Vascular surgery

Vascular conditions show the impact on the veins and arteries in the body. From Blockade, enlargement of arteries & veins to Atherosclerosis and Peripheral Artery Disease and finally heart attacks everything is interlinked. Vascular surgery with the help of minimally invasive procedures able to rule out the deadly diseases. Stents are placed in valve’s which are thinner and unable to carry blood supplies to the heart. The root cause of the problems includes lack of exercise and proper diet and medication which helps in regaining the health.

Orthopaedic Surgery

The session of orthopaedic surgery includes procedures like orthopedic sports medicine, end joint reconstruction, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, congenital disorders, Knee replacements, Modern orthopedic surgery and musculoskeletal research, Pain Management, Orthopedic Trauma, Musculoskeletal oncology, Pediatric Orthopedics, arthroscopy Carpal tunnel, chondroplasty Lumbar spinal fusion anterior cruciate, ligament reconstruction and many more etc.


Otorhinolaryngology is a subspecialty in surgery. It deals with the problems in the head, nose, ear, throat. It includes many of the procedures like nasal obstruction, adenoidectomy, ear surgery, hearing loss, skull base surgery & many of the tumours associated in these regions. Recent advances aids in the refinement of endoscopic sinus surgery, prevention of hearing loss. Endoscopy surgeries are widely practiced in this specialty.

Ocular Surgery

Generally performed by an ophthalmologist on the eye and adnexa. It includes many procedures like Laser eye surgery, Glaucoma surgery, Refractive surgery, Corneal surgery, Cataract surgery, Vitreoretinal surgery, orbital and other oculoplastic surgery. The main aim of ocular surgery involves the accurate vision.


Caesarean delivery is a surgery used to deliver babies it is recommended when delivery via vaginal is complicated. There are certain guidelines associated in performing this surgery, no c- section should be implemented on women whose pregnancy is less than 39 weeks. There are some effects like Amniotic fluid embolism and Postpartum bleeding and breathing problems in babies can occur. The healing process may take from 6- 7 weeks upon caesarean delivery.

Breast surgery

Surgeries associated with breast surgery include Mastectomy, Mastopexy, Microdochectomy, Lumpectomy, Biopsy, breast cancer is most complicated as it transfers to different organs of the body. Post-surgery complications arise like wound bleeding, hematoma, accumulation of fluid. New advancements need to be developed in drug-resistant breast cancers.



Gynecology surgery

This surgery refers to the treatment in the female reproductive system. Infertility, incontinence, benign conditions treatment of cancers, cosmetic purposes are some of the conditions can be treated by surgery. A gynecologist is a surgeon who looks after all this procedure.

Complex spine surgery

This surgery is the fusion of bone with the vertebrae to give steady position. It is one of the complex and requires surgeon key focus on it, generally, it takes around 6- 19 hours depending upon the complexity. The process is achieved by mounting screws, rods in providing stability to the spine which later on heals. Some of the potential risks include urinary tract infections, vein thrombosis and embolism.


Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stunt this procedure decreases the increase of blood pressure within the veins and variceal bleeding. With the placement of the stent into the vein of the liver the stent later expands with a small balloon which forms a channel and bypasses the liver. Complications like varices, portal hypertension ascites & hepatic hydrothorax will be improved by this surgery.

Dental surgery

Surgery which involves in the modification of dentition. It mainly deals with the surgery of teeth, gums, jawbones. Certain procedures include root canal treatment, prosthodontics, periodontics, oral and maxillofacial surgery. Most of the prosthodontics uses biocompatible materials like ceramic, gold, titanium which are used in implants, veneers, bridges etc.

Genito Urinary Surgery

This session includes disorders of genitourinary disorders,  management of medical  conditions, such as urinary-tract infections and benign prostatic hyperplasia, bladder or prostate cancer, kidney stones, congenital abnormalities, traumatic injury, and stress incontinence. Also  include minimally invasive robotic and laparoscopic surgery, laser-assisted surgeries, and other scope-guided procedures etc.


Pediatric Surgery

Pediatric surgery the surgical care of children from the fetus to adolescent. In addition to the usual fears and emotional trauma of illness and hospitalization, the child is especially concerned about being anesthetized. This field has various specialties such as Pediatric general surgery, Pediatric otolaryngology, Pediatric ophthalmology, Pediatric urology, Pediatric orthopedic surgery etc.

Abdominal Surgery

Abdominal surgery in generally covers surgical procedures that involve opening the abdomen. operation of each abdominal organ including the stomach, gallbladder, liver, pancreas, spleen and appendicitis. 

Fetal surgery

Fetal surgery also known as fetal reconstructive surgery. Fetal surgery is a growing branch of maternal-fetal medicine that covers any of a broad range of surgical techniques that are used to treat birth defects in fetuses who are still in the pregnant uterus. Maternal–fetal medicine (MFM), also known as perinatology, is a branch of medicine that focuses on managing health concerns of the mother and fetus prior to, during, and shortly after pregnancy

Otorhinolaryngology surgery

Otorhinolaryngology surgery is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with the surgical and medical management of conditions in the head and neck. Doctors who specialize in this area are called otolaryngologists, head and neck surgeons, or ENT surgeons. Patients seek treatment from an otorhinolaryngologist for diseases of the ear, nose, throat, base of the skull, head, and neck which encompasses the surgical management and reconstruction of cancers and benign tumors of the head and neck as well as plastic surgery of the face and neck

Surgical oncology

Surgical oncology focuses on the surgical management of tumors, especially cancerous tumors. The proliferation of cancer centers will continue to popularize the field, as will developments in minimally invasive techniques, palliative surgery, and neo-adjuvant treatments.


Pancreatectomy is an operation to remove the head of the pancreas, the first part of the small intestine (duodenum), the gallbladder and the bile duct. These procedures are used in the management of several conditions involving the pancreas, such as benign pancreatic tumors, pancreatic cancer, and pancreatitis